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2015 - Vulnerability Assessment

6 - VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

INTRODUCTION

The Vulnerability Assessment section builds upon the information provided in the Hazard Analysis by identifying community assets, potentially at-risk populations and development trends in Mecklenburg County, then assessing the potential impact and amount of damage (loss of life and/or property) that could be caused by each hazard event addressed in this risk assessment.[1]  The primary objective of this level of vulnerability assessment is to prioritize hazards of concern to MecklenburgCounty and its incorporated municipalities adding to the foundation for mitigation strategy and policy development.  Consistent with the preceding sections, the following hazards are addressed in this assessment:

  • FLOOD
  • HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS
  • SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS
  • TORNADOES
  • WINTER STORMS
  • EARTHQUAKES
  • LANDSLIDES
  • SINKHOLES
  • DROUGHT
  • WILDFIRE
  • DAM/LEVEE FAILURE

To complete the vulnerability assessment, best available data was collected from a variety of sources, including local, state and federal agencies, and multiple analyses were applied through qualitative and quantitative means (further described below).  Additional work will be done on an ongoing basis to enhance, expand and further improve the accuracy of the baseline results, and it is expected that this vulnerability assessment will continue to be refined through future plan updates as new data and loss estimation methods become available.

The findings presented in this section were developed using best available data, and the methods applied have resulted in an approximation of risk.  These estimates should be used to understand relative hazard risk and the potential losses that may be incurred.  However, uncertainties are inherent in any loss estimation methodology, arising in part from incomplete scientific knowledge concerning specific hazards and their effects on the built environment and also from approximations that are necessary in order to provide a comprehensive analysis.


METHODOLOGIES USED

Two distinct risk assessment methodologies were used in the formation of this vulnerability assessment.  The first consists of a quantitative analysis that relies upon best available data and technology, while the second approach consists of a qualitative analysis that relies more on local knowledge and rational decision making.  Upon completion, the methods are combined to create a “hybrid” approach for assessing hazard vulnerability for MecklenburgCounty that allows for some degree of quality control and assurance.  The methodologies are briefly described and introduced here and are further illustrated throughout this section.  For each hazard addressed in this section, vulnerability is summarized in part by an annualized loss estimate specific to that hazard, along with a “PRI” value (described in detail below).

QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY

The quantitative assessment consists of utilizing Hazards U.S. Multi-Hazard (HAZUSazus®MH)[2] software, a geographic information system (GIS)-based loss estimation tool available from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), along with a statistical risk assessment methodology for hazards outside the scope of HAZUSHazus®MH.  For some hazards, the quantitative assessment incorporates a detailed GIS-based approach using best available local data from Mecklenburg County.  When combined, the results of these vulnerability studies are used to form an assessment of potential hazard losses (in dollars) along with the identification of specific community assets that are deemed potentially at-risk. 

Explanation of HAZUSMHHazusMHand Statistical Risk Assessment Methodology

HAZUSMHHazusMHis FEMA’s nationwide standardized loss estimation software package, built on an integrated GIS platform with a national inventory of baseline geographic data (including information on Mecklenburg County’s general building stock and dollar exposure).  Originally designed for the analysis of earthquake risks, FEMA has expanded the program to allow for the analysis of multiple hazards: namely the flood and wind (hurricane wind) hazards.  By providing estimates on potential losses, HAZUSMH HazusMH facilitates quantitative comparisons between hazards and may assist in the prioritization of hazard mitigation activities.

HAZUSMHHazusMHuses a statistical approach and mathematical modeling of risk to predict a hazard’s frequency of occurrence and estimated impacts based on recorded or historic damage information.  The HAZUSHazusMH risk assessment methodology is parametric, in that distinct hazard and inventory parameters—such as wind speed and building type, for example—were modeled using the HAZUSHazusMH software to determine the impact (damages and losses) on the built environment.  Figure 6.1 shows a conceptual model of HAZUSHazusMH methodology.  More information on HAZUSMHHazusMHloss estimation methodology is available through FEMA at www.fema.gov/hazus.


Figure 6.1: Conceptual Model of HAZUSMH Methodology

 

Sources: Federal Emergency Management Agency

For hazards outside the scope of HAZUSMHHazusMH, a specific statistical risk assessment methodology was designed and applied to generate potential loss estimates.  The approach is based on the same principals as HAZUSMHHazusMH, but does not rely on readily available automated software.  First, historical data is compiled for each hazard to relate occurrence patterns (frequency, intensity, damage, etc.) with existing hazard models.  Statistical evaluations are then applied in combination with engineering modeling to develop damage functions that can generate annualized losses. 

The use of HAZUSHazusMH software along with the statistical risk assessment methodology provides a determination of estimated annualized loss[3] for the following hazards:

  • Flood
  • Hurricanes and Tropical Storms
  • Severe Thunderstorms
  • Tornadoes
  • Winter Storms
  • Earthquakes
  • Landslides
  • Sinkholes
  • Wildfire
  • Dam/Levee Failure

Due to a lack of historical data on dollar losses to the drought hazard, combined with the lack of alternative, consistent methodologies for reliably quantifying the economic impacts of drought, a third risk assessment methodology was applied for the drought hazard.  This method is described in the Drought portion of this section.

When possible, quantitative hazard loss estimates are compared with historical damage data as recorded through the National Weather Service/National Climatic Data Center and other reliable data sources.  For those hazards in which HAZUSHazusMH was used, probabilistic “worst case scenario” results were produced to show the maximum potential extent of damages.  It is understood that any smaller events that could occur would likely create lesser losses than those estimated here.

Explanation of GIS-based (Non-HAZUSHazusMH) Risk Assessment Methodology

In addition to generating annualized loss estimates for each hazard, GIS technology was further utilized (independent of the HAZUSHazusMH software) to quantify and analyze potentially at-risk populations and community assets such as buildings, critical facilities and infrastructure.  GIS analysis was completed for those hazards that can be spatially defined in a meaningful manner (i.e., hazards with an officially determined geographic extent) and for which digital GIS data layers are readily available.  For MecklenburgCounty, this includes the following hazards:

  • Flood
  • Wildfire

The first step in conducting this analysis included the collection of relevant GIS data from local, state and national/federal sources.  These sources include the Mecklenburg County GIS Department, the North CarolinaCenter for Geographic Information and Analysis (CGIA) and federal agencies such as FEMA, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).  Once all data was acquired, ESRI® ArcGIS™ 9.310.2 was used to assess specific risks to people, buildings and infrastructure utilizing digital hazard data in combination with the locally-available GIS data layers.  Primary data layers include Census 20100 data along with local building footprints, tax parcel records and geo-referenced point locations for critical facilities and infrastructure elements.  Using these data layers, risk was assessed and described by determining the census blocks or point locations that intersected with delineated hazard areas. 

QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY

The qualitative assessment relies less on technology, but more on historical and anecdotal data, community input and professional judgment regarding expected hazard impacts.  The qualitative assessment completed for Mecklenburg County is based on the Priority Risk Index (PRI), a tool used by the County to measure the degree of risk for identified hazards in a particular planning area.  The PRI is also used to assist community officials in ranking and prioritizing those hazards that pose the most significant threat to their area based on a variety of factors deemed important by the Mitigation Planning Committee and other stakeholders in the hazard mitigation planning process.

While the quantitative assessment focuses on using best available data, computer models and GIS technology, the PRI system relies more on historical data, local knowledge and the general consensus of the Mitigation Planning Committee.  The PRI is used for hazards with no available GIS data or relevant information to perform quantitative analyses, and also provides an important opportunity to compare, crosscheck or validate the results of those that do have available data.

The PRI results in numerical values that allow identified hazards to be ranked against one another (the higher the PRI value, the greater the hazard risk).  PRI values are obtained by assigning varying degrees of risk to five categories for each hazard (probability, impact, spatial extent, warning time and duration).  Each degree of risk has been assigned a value (1 to 4) and an agreed upon weighting factor[4], as summarized in Table 6.1

To calculate the PRI value for a given hazard, the assigned risk value for each category is multiplied by the weighting factor.  The sum of all five categories equals the final PRI value, as demonstrated in the example equation below: 

PRI VALUE = [(PROBABILITY x .30) + (IMPACT x .30) + (SPATIAL EXTENT x .20) + (WARNING TIME x .10) + (DURATION x .10)]

According to the weighting scheme applied for MecklenburgCounty, the highest possible PRI value is 4.0.  Prior to being finalized, PRI values for each hazard were reviewed and accepted by the Mitigation Planning Committee.

SUMMARY

Using both the qualitative and quantitative analyses to evaluate the hazards that impact Mecklenburg County provides members of the Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee Team with a dual-faceted review of the hazards.  This allows officials to not only recognize those hazards that may potentially be the most costly, but also to plan and prepare for those hazards that, although may not cause much monetary damage, could put a strain on the local resources needed to recover after their impact on the county.

All conclusions of the vulnerability assessment completed for MecklenburgCounty and its incorporated jurisdictions are presented in “Conclusions on Hazard Risk” at the end of this section.  Findings for each hazard are detailed in the hazard-by-hazard vulnerability assessment that follows, beginning with an overview of general asset inventory and exposure data for MecklenburgCounty.



Table 6.1: Summary of Priority Risk Index (PRI)

PRI CATEGORY

DEGREE OF RISK

ASSIGNED WEIGHTING FACTOR

LEVEL

CRITERIA

INDEX VALUE

Probability

Unlikely

Less than 1% annual probability

1

30%

Possible

Between 1 and 10% annual probability

2

Likely

Between 10 and 100% annual probability

3

Highly Likely

100% annual probability

4

Impact*

Minor

Very few injuries, if any.  Only minor property damage and minimal disruption on quality of life.  Temporary shutdown of critical facilities.

1

30%

Limited

Minor injuries only.  More than 10% of property in affected area damaged or destroyed.  Complete shutdown of critical facilities for more than one day.

2

Critical

Multiple deaths/injuries possible.  More than 25% of property in affected area damaged or destroyed.  Complete shutdown of critical facilities for more than one week.

3

Catastrophic

High number of deaths/injuries possible.  More than 50% of property in affected area damaged or destroyed.  Complete shutdown of critical facilities for 30 days or more.

4

Spatial Extent

Negligible

Less than 1% of area affected

1

20%

Small

Between 1 and 10% of area affected

2

Moderate

Between 10 and 50% of area affected

3

Large

Between 50 and 100% of area affected

4

Warning Time

More than 24 hours

Self explanatory

1

10%

12 to 24 hours

Self explanatory

2

6 to 12 hours

Self explanatory

3

Less than 6 hours

Self explanatory

4

Duration

Less than 6 hours

Self explanatory

1

10%

Less than 24 hours

Self explanatory

2

Less than one week

Self explanatory

3

More than one week

Self explanatory

4

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam

* Determining impact was based upon its estimated maximum severity level[5] as indicated below. 

Hazard

Estimated Maximum Severity Level

Flood

500-Year Flood (0.2% annual chance flood elevations)

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

Category 2 Hurricane (96-110mph winds)

Severe Thunderstorms

Severe Thunderstorm Winds (55mph winds)

Tornadoes

F4 Tornado (166-200mph winds)

Winter Storms

Severe Winter Storm (50mph winds, snow accumulations of greater than one foot and/or ice accumulations of greater than 1 inch)

Earthquakes

MMI VI Earthquake

Landslides

Only minor naturally occurring events in isolated, undeveloped areas

Sinkholes

Only minor naturally occurring events in isolated, undeveloped areas

Drought

PDSI -4.0 (Extreme Drought)

Wildfire

20 acres burned along urban/wildland interface

Dam/ Levee Failure

Complete failure of high-hazard dam

While Mecklenburg County is potentially vulnerable to each of the hazards identified in this Plan, estimated maximum severity levels helps assign values for potential impact (answering the question of “how bad can it be?”) based on available scientific data and previous hazard occurrences as described in Section 5: Hazard Analysis.


OVERVIEW OF MECKLENBURG COUNTY VULNERABILITY

POPULATION

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total population of Mecklenburg County in 200138 was 890,515990,997.  (For comparison, the total population for the state of North Carolina as a whole was 9,222,4149,943,964.)  Mecklenburg County is among the most densely populated areas in the state.  The average number of persons and housing units per square mile is 1,6301,755.5 and 766 780 respectively.  The City of Charlotte contains the greatest population and housing units among cities and towns in the county.  Table 6.2 provides a summary of population, land area and density for the planning area. 

Table 6.2: Summary of Population, Land Area and Density

JURISDICTION

POPULATION (2013)POPULATION

AREA IN SQUARE MILES

DENSITY PER SQUARE MILE OF LAND AREA

TOTAL AREA

WATER AREA

LAND AREA

POPULATION (2010)POPULATION

HOUSING UNITS (2010)HOUSING UNITS

MecklenburgCounty

990,977890,515

546.22

19.94

526.28

1,755.51,630

780766

City of Charlotte

792,862687,456

242.87

0.6

242.27

2,457.12,831

13201,221

Town of Cornelius

26,89824,487

8.74

0.28

8.46

2,058.42,802

14121,900

Town of Davidson

11,75010,305

5.06

0.2

4.86

1,903.02,037

875699*

Town of Huntersville

50,45844,054

31.16

0.01

31.15

1,180.81,414

593533

Town of Matthews

29,38426,901

14.21

0

14.21

1,589.61,893

775774

Town of Mint Hill

24,54320,369

21.27

0.04

21.23

949.8958

431370*

Town of Pineville

8,0616,791

3.57

0

3.57

1,129.41,902

1134971*

NORTH CAROLINA

9,848,9179,222,414

53,818.51

5,107.63

48,710.88

196.1171

7878

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, July 1, 200810, and 2013 Estimates

* No Census data on housing units available for 2008, so these estimates we’re generated using 2008 population data in combination with average household size according the most recent Census data (2000).

Figure 6.2 shows the distribution of this population across the county based on the number of persons per census block.  Composite maps showing population distribution overlaid with the flood and wildfire hazards—the two hazards addressed in this risk assessment that can be spatially defined in a meaningful manner through GIS technology—are presented in those respective sections of this vulnerability assessment.


Figure 6.2: Population Density

 

GENERAL ASSET INVENTORY

The total dollar exposure of buildings within Mecklenburg County is estimated to be approximately $92.5188.4 billion.  This figure is based on an estimated 250,689300,795 residential, commercial, industrial and other buildings located throughout the county, derived from HAZUSHazusMH data[6] (Table 6.3).  The total dollar exposure accounts for both building value ($55.3116.1 billion) and contents value ($37.272.3 billion).  Taken together, the building and contents values provide an estimate of the aggregated total replacement value for the county’s assets.

Table 6.3: Building Inventory in MecklenburgCounty

BUILDING TYPE

NUMBER OF BUILDINGS

CONTENTS VALUE

BUILDING VALUE

Residential

226,187291,355

$19,763,875,45,921,817,000

$39,512,89791,834,203,000

Commercial

16,6477,250

$11,817,459,18,254,389,000

$11,280,382,17,342,221,000

Industrial

4,6421,146

$3,419,5085,250,279,000

$2,468,4813,783,442,000

Other[7]

3,2131,044

$2,184,315,2,908,180,000

$2,072,2523,212,284,000

TOTAL

250,689300,795

$37,185,15772,334,665,000

$55,334,012116,172,150,000

Source: HAZUSHazusMH

Figures 6.3 through 6.5 illustrate the density of total dollar exposure for residential, commercial and industrial buildings across Mecklenburg County according to dollars per square mile.


Figure 6.3: Residential Building Exposure

 





Figure 6.4: Commercial Building Exposure

 

 


Figure 6.5: Industrial Building Exposure

 


CRITICAL FACILITIES

A GIS analysis was performed to identify the number and approximate location of critical facilities throughout the county and how critical facilities may relate to known hazard areas.  Table 6.4 lists the types of facilities included in this analysis along with a summary of their potential vulnerability.[8] 

As can be seen in the table, it has been determined based on simple GIS analysis that 19 critical facilities are potentially at-risk to current flood hazards (existing FEMA 100-year floodplain) and an additional 3 may become potentially at-risk to future flood hazards (future Community 100-year floodplain) based on projected build-out conditions.  Only two facilities were found to be located in areas of high wildfire potential, and 52 facilities were found to be located in areas of moderate wildfire potential.  Location within an identified hazard area is not automatically an indicator that a particular facility is vulnerable to that hazard, and more site-specific analysis of these facilities is recommended as part of the process for identifying and evaluating any specific hazard mitigation actions to be proposed in this Plan.

Table 6.4: Critical Facilities

FACILITY TYPE

NUMBER OF FACILITIES

NUMBER IN
CURRENT FEMA 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN

NUMBER IN
FUTURE COMMUNITY 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN

NUMBER IN AREAS OF HIGH WILDFIRE POTENTIAL

NUMBER IN AREAS OF MODERATE WILDFIRE POTENTIAL

Airport

1

0

0

01

1

Cell Tower

307

3

3

0

13

Day Care Facilities

254

6

6

0

9

Fire Services

3942

0

0

0

2

Government

40

4

5

0

2

Law Enforcement

1416

10

10

0

0

Nursing Homes

3

0

0

0

0

Private Hospital

24

2

2

0

01

Private School

6087

21

31

0

43

Public Hospital

2

0

0

0

1

Public School

175191

1

21

23

1617

Volunteer Fire Services

19

0

0

0

3

TOTAL

938

19

22

2

51

Sources: Mecklenburg County; GIS Analysis, including Hazus

Figure 6.6 shows the approximate location of the critical facilities included in this analysis by facility type.


Figure 6.6: Approximate Location of Critical Facilities

 

The following twenty two18 critical facilities are believed to be within the 100-year floodplain according to the GIS analysis performed:

Private Hospitals

FEMA Floodplain:

  • Charlotte Mecklenburg Hospital Authority; 1000 Blythe Blvd, Charlotte
  • Aldersgate United Methodist Retirement Community; 3800 Shamrock Dr, Charlotte

Public Schools

FEMA Floodplain:

  • Corvian Community School; Kindergarten to 4th Grade; 9501 David Taylor Dr, Charlotte
  • ·                        Alexander Graham Middle School; 6th to 8th Grade; 1800 Runnymede Rd, Charlotte

Community Floodplain:

  • ·                        Lake Wylie Elementary School; Kindergarten to 5th Grade; 13620 Erwin Rd, Charlotte

Private Schools

FEMA Floodplain:

  • The John Crosland School; 5146 Parkway Plaza Boulevard, Charlotte
  • ·                        Charlotte Country Day School; Pre-Kindergarten to 12th Grade; 1440 Carmel Rd, Charlotte
  • ·                        Dore Academy; Kindergarten to 12th Grade; 1727 Providence Rd, Charlotte

Community Floodplain:

  • ·                        United Faith Christian Academy; Pre-Kindergarten to 12th Grade; 8617 Providence Rd, Charlotte

Registered Day Care Facilities

FEMA Floodplain:

  • 7000 Shannon Willow Rd, Charlotte
  • 1700 Providence Rd, Charlotte
  • 3038 Hilliard Dr, Charlotte
  • 1004 Willis St, Charlotte
  • 9501 David Taylor Dr, Charlotte
  • 9625 David Taylor Dr, Charlotte

Government

FEMA Floodplain:

  • Mecklenburg County Board of Elections; 741 Kenilworth Ave, Charlotte
  • Irwin Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant; 4000 Westmont Dr, Charlotte
  • Sugar Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant; 5301 Closeburn Rd, Charlotte
  • McAlpine Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant; 12701 Lancaster Hwy, Charlotte

Community Floodplain:

  • Mallard Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant; 12400 US 29 Hwy, Charlotte

Law Enforcement

FEMA Floodplain:

  • ·                        Steele Creek Division/ Academy; 1750 Shopton Rd, Charlotte

Cell Towers

FEMA Floodplain

  • 17103 Statesville Rd, Cornelius
  • 11603 Mallard Creek Rd, Charlotte
  • 8115 Fallsdale Dr, Charlotte

The following 2 3 critical facilities are believed to be within areas of high wildfire potential according to the GIS analysis performed:[9] 

Public Schools

  • Independence High School; 9th to 12th Grade; 1967 Patriot Dr, Mint Hill
  • Northeast Middle School; 6th to 8th Grade; 5960 Brickstone Dr, Mint Hill
  • Lebanon Road Elementary School; 7300 Lebanon Rd, Charlotte

ZONING AND LAND USE

In order to regulate current and future land use and guide overall development patterns, Mecklenburg County, the City of Charlotte and the towns of Cornelius, Davidson, Huntersville, Matthews, Mint Hill and Pineville have each adopted a zoning ordinance that enforces standards for designated zoning districts.  Zoning maps are useful planning tools, demonstrating the type and location of projected community development. 

Figure 6.7 shows generalized zoning designations for unincorporated Mecklenburg County and its seven incorporated municipalities on one countywide map.  Composite maps showing zoning information overlaid with the flood and wildfire hazards—the two hazards addressed in this risk assessment that can be spatially defined in a meaningful manner through GIS technology—are presented in those respective sections of this vulnerability assessment.  While this alone is not a firm indicator of future vulnerability as it relates to land use and development trends, these composite maps are presented under the Future Vulnerability and Land Use heading of these hazard discussions as a means of illustrating in a general way where future development may occur in relation to known potential hazard areas.


Figure 6.7: Countywide Zoning Designations for Mecklenburg County

 


MANUFACTURED HOUSING AND THE AGE OF BUILDINGS

Of the 226,187291,355 residential buildings estimated for Mecklenburg County, approximately 5,9407,402 or 3 percent are classified as manufactured homes (HAZUSHazus®MH).  According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2006-2008 American Community Survey), it is estimated that 37 percent of total housing units in Mecklenburg County were reportedly built prior to 1980.  In general, these residential buildings are presumed to be more susceptible to natural hazards.

The vulnerability of manufactured versus those built on-site can vary due to several factors.  These include the age of construction, the materials and construction techniques used, the design and adherence to past and current building codes, and the method of installation.  In the case of manufactured housing, their proper installation can significantly affect vulnerability.  For instance, with regard to wind-related hazards such as tropical cyclones, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, estimates based on regional trends show that 50 percent of manufactured homes built prior to 1976 (pre-HUD structures) are not secured with tie downs.  Of the manufactured homes built between 1976 and 1993, 25 percent have no tie downs.  Of those built from 1994 to 2004, only 1 percent have no tie downs.  These statistics demonstrate that older manufactured homes—specifically those with no tie downs—are at greater risk from high wind hazards (Blue Sky Foundation of North Carolina). 

Older buildings, particularly those built prior to 1980, are generally considered more susceptible to earthquake and wind hazards due to their age but also the absence of today’s strong seismic and wind design standards.  For example, history has proven that the greatest amount of damage following earthquakes will be to older buildings, such as unreinforced masonry structures, that were not designed with seismic hazards in mind.  A similar logic applies to the age of buildings and flood hazard vulnerability.  As described in Section 7: Capability Assessment, most communities in Mecklenburg County joined the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) after 1980.  In order to join the NFIP, each participating jurisdiction is required to adopt and enforce its own floodplain management ordinance that requires certain construction hazards aimed at preventing future flood damages.  As a result, structures built after joining the NFIP are assumed to be less vulnerable to future flood hazards than pre-FIRM construction, assuming other environmental conditions remain constant (data on the number of such buildings for each participating jurisdiction are included within this section for Flood).  It is important to note, however, that continued development, for example, can cause a significant rise in flood elevations.

The above information suggests that Mecklenburg County and its participating jurisdictions should consider manufactured homes and particularly older residential structures to likely be at significantly higher risk to natural hazards, and more in need of attention through possible future hazard mitigation strategies.

DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

Two factors that contribute to an overall understanding of development trends are population change and economic growth.  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the rate of population growth in Mecklenburg County between 2000 and 2008 2010 was 28 32 percent, significantly higher than the state average of nearly 15 percent.  Much of this growth is centered in the City of Charlotte and surrounding areas.  The North Carolina Office of State Budget and Management projects that the population for Mecklenburg County will increase from 890,515919,628 in 2008 2010 to more than 1.42 million in 2030 (a 35 48 percent increase), indicating that high growth rates for Mecklenburg County are to be expected and planned for accordingly by its local jurisdictions.  Population estimates for 2034 are now expected to be 1,447,850.

As the population increases, new housing construction also increases which creates jobs and increases the inflow of dollars to the local economy.  According to the Charlotte Chamber of Commerce, in the past ten years the area has recruited 7,011 new companies, 61,174 new jobs, and $12 billion in new investment which translated into a significant building boom.  However, Mecklenburg County was hit hard along with the rest of the nation following the major economic downturn in late 2007. After 18 months of no reported growth in Charlotte’s coincident economic index, the area reversed the trend in November 2009 fueled by solid retail sales and the addition of thousands of new jobs.  Local employment and retail sales continue to look positive for the immediate future; however the issuance of building permits continues to be well below recent averages.  Mecklenburg County’s housing sector has a long way to go before resuming the nearly 14,000 permits issued in 2006 (the total number of permits issued in 2008 is less than half that number, estimated at 6,850[SM1] ).  While there is much debate on how quickly the economy recovers, it is fully anticipated that any increase in the broader economy will produce large percentage gains in the number of building permits issued.  For the time being, however, new residential and non-residential construction and development across Mecklenburg County remains slow.

More information on the growth and land use trends for Mecklenburg County and its participating municipal jurisdictions is provided in Section 3: Community Profile.  More information on how each jurisdiction is currently addressing future development trends through local planning mechanisms, including a local self- assessment of how each is positioned to grow safely relative to natural hazards, is provided in Section 7: Capability Assessment.


FLOOD

PRI Value: 3.3

Annualized Loss Estimate: $4,864,000[SM2] 

The vulnerability assessment for the flood hazard includes the findings of the qualitative assessment conducted, a series of jurisdiction-level maps showing existing and future potential flood hazard areas (Figures 6.8 – 6.14), an overview of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) statistics, repetitive loss properties (as defined and identified by the NFIP), estimates of potential losses, social vulnerability, and future vulnerability and land use.  As described in detail in the Hazard Analysis section, Mecklenburg County has experienced 71103 significant flood events in the past 109 124 years amounting to approximately $39.241.4 million in reported property damage, providing evidence that Mecklenburg County—historically—is vulnerable to the flood hazard and that flood events occur on a fairly frequent basis. 

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the flood hazard scored a PRI value of 3.3 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.5 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.5: Qualitative Assessment for Flood

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Highly Likely

Critical

Moderate

6 to 12 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam


Figure 6.8: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, City of Charlotte

 

Figure 6.9: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Cornelius

 

 


Figure 6.10: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Davidson

 

 



Figure 6.11: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Huntersville

 

 


Figure 6.12: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Matthews

 

 



Figure 6.13: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Mint Hill

 

 


Figure 6.14: Potential Flood Hazard Areas, Town of Pineville

 


NFIP STATISTICS AND REPETITIVE LOSS PROPERTIES

According to FEMA databases as of early 20104, there are currently 3,4093,727 flood insurance policies in place in Mecklenburg County with nearly $800 900 million in coverage, with a total number of 2,062 345 losses amounting to nearly $36 40 million.[10]  Table 6.6 provides details for each jurisdiction with regard to the community’s date of entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), date of the community’s current effective Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), number of flood insurance policies in place, amount of coverage, total losses and total dollar amount of payments.  The table also includes the number of repetitive loss properties identified through separate FEMA databases for each jurisdiction, as defined by the NFIP.[11]

Reducing the number of repetitive loss properties insured by the NFIP is a nationwide emphasis of FEMA.  According to FEMA’s repetitive loss database, a total of 260871 repetitive loss properties are located within Mecklenburg County, and all but two  are located in the City of Charlotte (with the other two listed as being located in the Town of Mint Hill).  In conducting further research using data provided by Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s Storm Water Services and GIS departments, it was determined that 102 of these properties have already been mitigated through Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s Floodplain Buyout (Acquisition) Program (further discussed in Section 7: Capability Assessment).  All of the repetitive loss properties acquired through this flood mitigation program were located in the City of Charlotte and following structural demolition are being maintained permanently as open space with no potential for future land development.  Repetitive loss properties will remain a high priority for future flood mitigation efforts.

Table 6.6: NFIP Statistics and Repetitive Loss Properties

JURISDICTION

NFIP ENTRY DATE

CURRENT[SM3]  EFFECTIVE MAP

NUMBER OF POLICIES

AMOUNT OF COVERAGE

TOTAL LOSSES

TOTAL PAYMENTS

NUMBER OF REPETITIVE LOSS PROPERTIES

MecklenburgCounty

06/01/1981

 03/02/09

773516

 $187,549,000131,899,500

161188

$2,202808,649438

0

Charlotte

08/15/1978

 03/02/09

2,349816

 $524,405,400663,754,200

1,8982,143

$33,667,63138,007,849

258869

Cornelius

09/30/1997

 03/02/09

73123

 $22,705,30033,740,300

13

$046,001

0

Davidson

10/16/1997

 03/02/09

4559

$10,070,90013,538,500

01

$0

0

Huntersville

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

56104

$16,802,90027,193,000

0

$0

0

Matthews

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

4178

$11,814,10022,086,200

06

$045,308

0

Mint Hill

12/21/07

 03/02/09

1742

$3,874,60011,467,700

02

$018,105

2*

Pineville

03/18/1987

 03/02/09

4148

 $10,255,90013,376,800

23

$18,000

0

TOTAL

 

 

3,4093,872

$787,478,100837,056,200

2,0622,346

$35,888,28040,943,701

374

Source: Federal Emergency Management Agency (as of 12/31/200902/28/2015)

* Further validation necessary due to the fact that no historical losses have been recorded for NFIP policies in the Town of Mint Hill according to FEMA’s policy and claims statistics.  This data discrepancy is likely due to errors associated with the matching of NFIP policy addresses in Mecklenburg County to the proper incorporated jurisdiction.

Figure 6.15 illustrates the general locations of repetitive loss properties located in Mecklenburg County, with many located along Briar, McAlpine, McDowell and McMullen creeks.  NFIP repetitive loss data is protected under the federal Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), which prohibits personal identifiers (i.e., owner names, addresses, etc.) from being published in local hazard mitigation plans.


Figure 6.15: Approximate Location of Repetitive Loss Properties

 

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

In order to provide a comprehensive update on the current estimated exposure and potential losses to flood prone structures in Mecklenburg County, two analyses were completed.  First, a detailed GIS analysis of the study area was conducted using best available data, including Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) data for the existing FEMA 100-year Floodplain in combination with locally updated building footprint layers and digital tax parcel records.  In order to quantify potentially at-risk properties, all buildings of at least 600 square feet (eliminating those that are likely accessory structures versus habitable buildings) that intersected with delineated floodplain areas were identified.  The output data was then linked to current tax parcel records to estimate the assessed value and year built information for each building.  Following the analysis it was estimated that there are 3,812 structures located in the current 100-year floodplain with a total assessed building value of nearly $2.5 billion in exposure.  Of these, 2,130 structures are estimated to be Pre-FIRM[12] with a total assessed building value of nearly $952 million.  [SM4] Table 6.7 provides a detailed listing of the number of structures, number of structures determined to be pre-FIRM based on year built, and the assessed value of structures within the existing 100-year floodplain for each of Mecklenburg County’s incorporated jurisdictions. 

Table 6.7: Overview of Potentially At-Risk Properties (Flood)

JURISDICTION

NFIP ENTRY DATE

CURRENT EFFE CTIVE FIRM

EXISTING 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN

NUMBER OF STRUCTURES

ASSESSED VALUE[SM5] 

NUMBER OF PRE-FIRM STRUCTURES

VALUE OF PRE-FIRM STRUCTURES

MecklenburgCounty

06/01/1981

 03/02/09

7802,035

$696,265,276

281

$36,722,200

Charlotte

08/15/1978

 03/02/09

2,6103,320

$1,653,249,846

1,547

$847,337,908

Cornelius

09/30/1997

 03/02/09

107828

$41,019,700

68

$17,795,800

Davidson

10/16/1997

 03/02/09

4145

$31,095,100

20

$11,103,200

Huntersville

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

123185

$25,177,600

95

$16,447,300

Matthews

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

1833

$3,054,700

18

$3,054,700

Mint Hill

12/21/07

 03/02/09

7284

$9,605,600

72

$9,605,600

Pineville

03/18/1987

 03/02/09

6193

$36,165,200

29

$9,605,100

TOTAL

 

 

3,8126,623

$2,495,633,022

2,130

$951,641,808

Sources: National Flood Insurance Program (as of 12/31/2009); Mecklenburg County; GIS Analysis

In order to quantify potential loss estimates to the flood hazard in Mecklenburg County, a Level-2 analysis was completed using FEMA’s HAZUSHazusMH loss estimation methodology.  In so doing, GIS analysts imported a detailed, countywide depth grid created from the latest DFIRM data for the existing FEMA 100-year Floodplain versus relying on HAZUSHazus to generate floodplain data based on rough digital elevation models.  However, due to limited time and budget for data processing, analysts had to rely on the default national inventory data for general building stock as summarized in the beginning of this section versus incorporation of creation of any local user-supplied datasets.  Table 6.8 summarizes the estimated direct economic loss[13] associated with the worst-case 100-year flood for each of Mecklenburg County’s participating jurisdictions.

Table 6.8: Estimated Potential Losses, by Jurisdiction (100-Year Flood Event)

JURISDICTION

DIRECT ECONOMIC LOSS

Mecklenburg County

$105,820193,909,000

Charlotte

$786,3001,924,293,000

Cornelius

$7,37016,456,000

Davidson

$9,95026,334,000

Huntersville

$45,090168,429,000

Matthews

$8,15037,899,000

Mint Hill

$6,69014,193,000

Pineville

$21,500,141,909,000

Upon completion of the analysis, a countywide annualized loss estimate of $4,864,000 was determined for Mecklenburg County.  To remain consistent with other annualized loss estimates this figure includes total building damage only (the annualized loss estimate for total direct economic loss is nearly $10 million).

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY

Figure 6.16 shows potential vulnerable population density according to those census blocks that intersect with the future 100-year floodplain.  While this alone does not identify specific at-risk populations, it does create a base-level understanding of the general number of persons living in proximity to known flood hazard areas.  According to the Census 2000 2010 data records, the data suggests that nearly 260280,000 people live within proximity areas that are in the projected future 100-year floodplain based on build-out conditions.


Figure 6.16: Census Blocks Intersecting Existing 100-year Floodplain

 

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND[SM6]  USE

In order to quantify potential future flood hazard vulnerability, a similar detailed GIS analysis of the study area as completed for current flood vulnerability (described above) was performed using best available GIS data including the future Community 100-year Floodplain (described in Section 5: Hazard Analysis) to identify the number and value of existing structures that may be located in future flood hazards areas as expanded due to anticipated “build-out” conditions (i.e., fully developed according to zoning and future land use projections).  In order to quantify potentially at-risk properties, all buildings of at least 600 square feet (eliminating those that are likely accessory structures versus habitable buildings) that intersected with delineated future floodplain areas were identified.  The exposure analysis does not include any estimates for new structures that will be constructed and located in the floodplain, as it is assumed that new construction will be protected against the 100-year flood according to local development regulations that include reference to future Community 100-year Floodplain maps.[14]  Further, five jurisdictions have already adopted regulatory standards that prohibit any new development in existing FEMA 100-year Floodplains.  These include Mecklenburg County, the City of Charlotte and the towns of Matthews, Mint Hill and Pineville. 

According to the future vulnerability analysis, a total of 7,149 properties are anticipated located in 100-year floodplain areas at build-out conditions with a total assessed building value of approximately $4.4 billion.  Of these, 3,812 structures are estimated to be Pre-FIRM with a total assessed building value of approximately $1.8 billion.  Table 6.9 provides a detailed listing of the number of structures estimated to be located within the future Community Floodplain along with their assessed building values, along with the number of those structures determined to be pre-FIRM based on year built and their assessed building values.

Table 6.9: Overview of Potentially At-Risk Properties at “Build-out” Conditions

JURISDICTION

NFIP ENTRY DATE

CURRENT EFFECTIVE FIRM

FUTURE 100-YEAR FLOODPLAIN

NUMBER OF STRUCTURES

ASSESSED VALUE

NUMBER OF PRE-FIRM STRUCTURES

VALUE OF PRE-FIRM STRUCTURES

Mecklenburg County

06/01/1981

 03/02/09

1,121

$776,689,676

373

$54,595,100

Charlotte

08/15/1978

 03/02/09

5,188

$3,400,739,249

2811

$1,631,004,616

Cornelius

09/30/1997

 03/02/09

117

$42,960,400

73

$18,200,800

Davidson

10/16/1997

 03/02/09

61

$39,732,800

23

$12,915,500

Huntersville

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

293

$61,285,100

235

$44,781,300

Matthews

02/04/2004

 03/02/09

68

$22,481,100

65

$21,764,000

Mint Hill

12/21/07

 03/02/09

149

$21,198,800

148

$21,004,400

Pineville

03/18/1987

 03/02/09

152

$62,686,800

84

$22,000,700

TOTAL

 

 

7,149

$4,427,773,925

3,812

$1,826,266,416

Sources: National Flood Insurance Program (as of 12/31/2009); Mecklenburg County; GIS Analysis

Figure 6.17 shows generalized zoning designations for unincorporated Mecklenburg County and its seven incorporated municipalities on one countywide map.  While this alone is not a firm indicator of future vulnerability as it relates to the flood hazard, land use and development trends, this composite map is presented here as a means of illustrating in a general way where future development may occur in relation to known potential flood hazard areas.  Both the existing and future 100-year floodplain delineations are illustrated in the figure.




Figure 6.17: Comparison of Zoning Designations with Future 100-Year Floodplain

 

HURRICANES AND TROPICAL STORMS

PRI Value: 2.9

Annualized Loss Estimate: $3,761,0006,921,500

Historical evidence shows that MecklenburgCounty is vulnerable to damaging hurricane and tropical storm-force winds despite the county’s inland location.[15]  As discussed in detail in the Hazard Analysis section, 32 hurricanes and tropical storms have passed within 75 miles of MecklenburgCounty since 1851, seven of which crossed directly through the county.  This translates into an estimate that 0.29 storms may potentially impact MecklenburgCounty on an annual basis. 

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the hurricane and tropical storm hazard scored a PRI value of 2.9 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.10 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.10: Qualitative Assessment for Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Likely

Critical

Large

More than 24 Hours

Less than 24 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Detailed loss estimates for the hurricane and tropical storm hazard (as these hazards relate to wind) were developed based on probabilistic scenarios using HAZUSHazusMH (Level 1 analysis).[16]  Table 6.11 shows estimates of potential building damage for the 100- and 500-year return periods, as well as annualized losses, by building occupancy type.  In summary, Mecklenburg County may be susceptible to an estimated total of approximately $52 116 million in building damages from a 100-year wind event, increasing to up to $614320 million for a 500-year event.  Annualized losses are estimated to be $3,7616,921,0500.  These figures are based on “worst-case” scenarios. 

Table 6.11: Estimates of Potential Building Damage

BUILDING OCCUPANCY TYPE

100-YEAR EVENT

500-YEAR EVENT

ANNUALIZED

Residential

$47,867112,330,000

$285,947586,285,000

$3,2266,446,000

Commercial

$2,5989,000

$26,42024,205,000

$392351,000

Industrial

$455483,000

$4,566873,000

$8877,000

Agriculture

$267,000

$553444,000

$67,5000

Education

$101115,000

$732648,000

$165,000

Government

$3940,000

$303232,000

$75,000

Religion/Non-profit

$168165,000

$1,573240,000

$251,000

TOTAL

$51115,246999,000

$320,094613,927,000

$3,761,0006,921,500

Source: HAZUSHazusMH

HAZUSHazusMH was also used to produce building damage estimates based on percentage of damage (by damage state) for the 100- and 500-year return periods (Table 6.12).  In summary, for the 100-year event 0.67 percent of the total building area might potentially suffer minor damage with no buildings being completely destroyed.  For the 500-year event, nearly 10 percent of the total building area might potentially suffer minor damage with still less than one percent being completely destroyed.

Table 6.12: Estimates of Potential Building Damage by Damage State

BUILDING OCCUPANCY TYPE

TOTAL SQUARE FEET

MINOR (%)

MODERATE (%)

SEVERE (%)

DESTRUCTION (%)

100-YR

500-YR

100-YR

500-YR

100-YR

500-YR

100-YR

500-YR

Residential

448,117,500

0.641.00

9.8513.73

0.0306

1.2171

0

0.01

0

0.01

Commercial

129,504,330

0.941.59

6.519.25

0.0607

1.6792

0

0.0908

0

0

Industrial

36,154,630

0.871.42

5.738.15

0.012

0.8979

0

0.1715

0

0.01

Agriculture

2,597,860

0.751.67

6.739.18

0.05

1.4258

0.01

0.587

0

0.0402

Education

6,949,270

0.761.12

5.696.59

0.061

0.6843

0

0.012

0

0

Government

2,590,390

0.8377

5.924.36

0

0.7629

0

0.02

0

0.01

Religion/Non-profit

10,008,420

0.661.09

6.028.03

0.032

0.6152

0

0.03

0

0

TOTAL

635,922,400

0.671.23

9.58.43

0.030.28

1.231.03

0

0.020.12

0

0.010.004

Source: HAZUSHazusMH

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

All future structures built in MecklenburgCounty will likely be exposed to hurricane and tropical storm-force winds and may also experience damage not accounted for in the loss estimates presented in this section.  However, continued enforcement of building codes, flood damage prevention ordinances and other local regulatory tools and policies designed to mitigate the effects of high hazard winds is expected to minimize future losses as construction and planning continue to seek higher standards.  Based on historical events the most significant local impacts for Mecklenburg County and its participating town to future events will likely be damage to trees (and the requisite management of vegetative debris) and widespread power outages to the area.

SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS

PRI Value: 2.7

Annualized Loss Estimate: $286,000

Historical evidence shows that MecklenburgCounty is vulnerable to severe thunderstorm activity, including related hazardous elements such as lightning and hail that often accompany these severe weather events. 

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the severe thunderstorm hazard scored a PRI value of 2.7 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.13 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.13: Qualitative Assessment for Severe Thunderstorms

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Highly Likely

Limited

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Because it cannot be predicted where severe thunderstorm, lightning or hail damage may occur, it is not possible to map geographic boundaries for this hazard or produce detailed loss estimates.  Therefore, the total dollar exposure figure of $92.5 billion for all buildings and contents within Mecklenburg County is considered to be exposed and could potentially be impacted on some level by this hazard.  Based on historic property damages for the past 55 years (1950 to 2009), an annualized loss estimate of $286,000 was generated for the severe thunderstorm hazard.  This annualized loss is presented in Table 6.14 by hazardous element.

Table 6.14: Estimated Annualized Losses

HAZARDOUS ELEMENT

ANNUAL PROBABILITY

ANNUALIZED LOSSES

Severe Thunderstorm (High Wind)

3.16

$51,000

Lightning

0.31

$210,000

Hail

2.33

$25,000

TOTAL

5.80

$286,000

Source: Statistical Risk Assessment Methodology

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

All future structures built in MecklenburgCounty will likely be exposed to severe thunderstorms, lightning and hail and may experience damage not accounted for in the estimated losses presented in this section.  Based on historical property damage records and current projections of population growth in Mecklenburg County, the county may experience an estimated $389,000 (in 2009 dollars) in annualized losses by the year 2030.

TORNADOES

PRI Value: 2.7

Annualized Loss Estimate: $170,000

Historical evidence shows that MecklenburgCounty is vulnerable to tornado activity, which often is associated with other severe weather events such as thunderstorm or tropical cyclone activity.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the tornado hazard scored a PRI value of 2.7 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.15 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.15: Qualitative Assessment for Tornadoes

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Likely

Critical

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Because it cannot be predicted where a tornado may strike, it is not possible to map geographic boundaries for this hazard or produce detailed loss estimates.  Therefore, the total dollar exposure figure of $92.5 billion for all buildings and contents within Mecklenburg County is considered to be exposed and could potentially be impacted on some level by the tornado hazard.

Based on historic property damages for the past 60 years (1950 to 2009), an annualized loss estimate of $170,000 was generated for the tornado hazard.  This annualized loss is presented in Table 6.16 by magnitude of event (Enhanced Fuijita Scale).

Table 6.16: Estimated Annualized Losses

MAGNITUDE OF EVENT

ANNUAL PROBABILITY

ANNUALIZED LOSSES

F0

10%

$12,000

F1

20%

$45,000

F2

10%

$113,000

TOTAL

41%

$170,000

Source: Statistical Risk Assessment Methodology

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

All future structures built in MecklenburgCounty are likely to be exposed to the tornado hazard and may experience damage not accounted for in the estimated losses presented in this section.  Based on projections of population growth in Mecklenburg County, the county may experience an estimated $231,000 (in 2009 dollars) in annualized losses by 2030.

WINTER STORMS

PRI Value: 3.0

Annualized Loss Estimate: $1,178,000

Historical evidence shows that MecklenburgCounty is vulnerable to winter storm activity, including heavy snow, ice, extreme cold, freezing rain, sleet and mixed winter weather.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the winter storm hazard scored a PRI value of 3.0 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.17 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.17: Qualitative Assessment for Winter Storms

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Likely

Critical

Large

More than 24 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Because winter storms typically affect large areas beyond county and municipal boundaries, it is not possible to map geographic locations within the county at specific risk from this hazard or produce detailed loss estimates.  Therefore, the total dollar exposure figure of $92.5 billion for all buildings and contents within Mecklenburg County is considered to be exposed and could potentially be impacted on some level by the winter storm hazard.

Based on historic property damages for the past 16 years (1994 to 2009), an annualized loss estimate of $1,178,000 was generated for the winter storm hazard.  This annualized loss is presented in Table 6.18 along with annual probability for severe winter storms causing reported property damages.  It should be understood that with the winter storm hazard, potential losses may be further inflated by additional, difficult to calculate factors such as the costs associated with the removal of snow from roadways, debris clean-up, indirect losses from power outages, etc. 

Table 6.18: Estimated Annualized Losses

ANNUAL PROBABILITY

ANNUALIZED LOSSES

25%

$1,178,000

Source: Statistical Risk Assessment Methodology

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

All future structures built in MecklenburgCounty are likely to be exposed to the winter storm hazard and may experience damage not accounted for in the estimated losses presented in this section.  Based on projections of population growth in Mecklenburg County, the county may experience an estimated $1,602,000 (in 2009 dollars) in annualized losses by 2030.

EARTHQUAKES

PRI Value: 2.6

Annualized Loss Estimate: $2,4241,235,000

The annual probability of an earthquake event impacting the study area is estimated at 5 percent based on historical data.  While the probability of an earthquake occurrence is relatively low, moderate losses should a significant earthquake event occur are possible.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the earthquake hazard scored a PRI value of 2.6 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.19 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.19: Qualitative Assessment for Earthquakes

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Possible

Critical

Moderate

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Table 6.20 provides generalized building damage estimates by occupancy for the 100-, 500- and 1,000-year return periods as well as annualized losses based on probabilistic scenarios using HAZUSHazusMH.  The annualized building damage estimate for the earthquake hazard is $2,4241,235,000, and in that estimate residential and commercial properties suffer more than 87 90 percent of the total damage.  It is anticipated that the greatest amount of property damage in during an earthquake event will be to older buildings not built to today’s seismic design standards, and particularly unreinforced masonry buildings.  According to the default inventory data within HAZUSHazusMH, there are approximately 26,000 unreinforced buildings located in Mecklenburg County, all classified as low-story units. 

Table 6.20: Estimates of Potential Building Damage

BUILDING OCCUPANCY TYPE

100-YEAR EVENT

500-YEAR EVENT

1,000-YEAR EVENT

ANNUALIZED

Residential

$0

$120,11785,111,000

$358,696,237,190,000

$1,300857,000

Commercial

$0

$50,90724,650,000

$160,02367,260,000

$824273,000

Industrial

$0

$10,9355,300,000

$33,47215,203,000

$16759,000

Agriculture

$0

$570263,000

$1,866751,000

$103,000

Education

$0

$2,8261,495,000

$9,0953,994,000

$4916,000

Government

$0

$1,066502,000

$3,4091,375,000

$18,0006,000

Religion/Non-profit

$0

$4,3862,086,000

$13,0655,678,000

$5621,000

Total

$0

$190,807119,407,000

$579,626331,451,000

$2,4241,235,000

Source: HAZUSHazusMH

HAZUSHazusMH was also used to produce building damage estimates based on percentage of damage (by damage state) for the 100-, 500-, and 1,000-year return periods (Table 6.21).  Note that the building occupancy types differ slightly from Table 6.20 in that “Single Family Residential” and “Other Residential” are presented separately consistent with the HAZUSHazusMH software output.

Table 6.21: Estimates of Potential Building Damage by Damage State

BUILDING OCCUPANCY TYPE

(# OF BUILDINGS)

SLIGHT

MODERATE

COMPLETE

100-YR

500-
YR

1,000-YR

100-YR

500-
YR

1,000-YR

100-YR

500-
YR

1,000-YR

Single Family Residential

0

9,5894,689

22,05911,037

0

1,636638

4,9821,789

0

83

39

Other Residential

0

2,076585

4,3031,234

0

673177

1,753428

0

40

17

Commercial

0

1,026181

2,325371

0

37754

1,220132

0

03

201

Industrial

0

27927

64556

0

1078

37220

0

10

60

Agriculture

0

542

1294

0

17

551

0

0

01

Education

0

302

694

0

100

361

0

0

10

Government

0

206

4712

0

71

264

0

0

0

Religion/Non-profit

0

8816

18332

0

314

8311

0

0

01

TOTAL

0

13,1625,508

29,76012,750

0

2,858883

8,5272,386

0

163

8512

Source: HAZUSHazusMH

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

All future structures built in Mecklenburg County will be exposed to and on some level vulnerable to seismic events, however their susceptibility to major damages is low due to the fact that seismic design standards are included in today’s building code requirements.  As explained earlier in this section, the greatest damage from an earthquake will likely be to older buildings (particularly unreinforced masonry buildings), as well as those facilities or infrastructure elements not maintained or upgraded to withstand the forces of potential ground shaking events – the identification of which is beyond the scope of this study.

LANDSLIDES

PRI Value: 1.4

Annualized Loss Estimate: Negligible (less than $5,000)

As documented in the Hazard Analysis section, historical evidence shows no significant landslide events in Mecklenburg County, despite the fact that the United States Geological Survey shows the county to be in zones of “high incidence” and “high susceptibility, moderate incidence.”  Minor landslide events are considered possible in localized, steep-sloped areas during extremely wet conditions.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the landslide hazard scored a PRI value of 1.4 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.22 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.22: Qualitative Assessment for Landslides

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Possible

Minor

Negligible

12 to 24 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Due to the lack of any historical landslide damage data or detailed local landslide hazard studies or maps, future damages caused by landslides and associated dollar losses are expected to be negligible.

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

Given that there is no historical evidence of landslide activity resulting in measurable damages, and that potential loss estimates for this hazard are considered to be negligible, it is difficult to assess what future vulnerabilities may exist or how land use may factor into this.

SINKHOLES

PRI Value: 1.8

Annualized Loss Estimate: Negligible (less than $5,000)

As documented in the Hazard Analysis section, existing soil types in MecklenburgCounty are not conducive to the formation of natural sinkholes.  There is a higher potential for soil piping and/or erosion caused by leakage from drainage pipes, culverts, and other human infrastructure activities or failures.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the sinkhole hazard scored a PRI value of 2.0 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.23 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.23: Qualitative Assessment for Sinkholes

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Possible

Limited

Negligible

6 to 12 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

Given that there is little historical evidence of natural sinkhole activity resulting in measurable damages, and that potential loss estimates for this hazard are considered to be negligible, it is not possible to assess what future vulnerabilities may exist or how land use may factor into discussion of this hazard. 

DROUGHT

PRI Value: 2.6

Annualized Loss Estimate: $792,000

Drought can impact natural systems as well as the ability of cities, towns and neighborhoods to function effectively.  Specific effects may include a reduction in the production of food grains and other crops, the size and quality of livestock and fish, available forage for livestock and wildlife, and the availability of water supplies needed by communities and industry. 

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the drought hazard scored a PRI value of 2.6 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.24 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.24: Qualitative Assessment for Drought

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Likely

Limited

Moderate

More than 24 Hours

More than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Although FEMA has estimated that the average annual losses due to drought in the United States are $6-8 billion[17], very little is known about the direct and indirect economic impacts of drought events.  It is generally understood that while severe to extreme drought conditions will cause minimal property damages, significant economic losses will be experienced across various sectors (agricultural, recreational, manufacturing, energy, etc.) at local, regional and even national scales.  However, reliable data on the estimates of historical losses caused by drought are rarely available (though the National Drought Mitigation Center is working to improve on this), making the application of a statistical risk assessment methodology very difficult.

Due to the lack of quantifiable data on documented historic losses across various sectors caused by the effects of drought in Mecklenburg County, this study is limited to only a simple estimation of potential losses to the agricultural sector as it is often the most directly affected (particularly in North Carolina, as documented by the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services[18]), and due to the fact that some local agricultural data is available as it relates to current exposure.  It is anticipated that more thorough loss estimation techniques may be applied during future updates to this Plan as FEMA and/or the NDMC develop methodologies to conduct better loss estimation analyses, and as the quality of locally available data improves.  

In order to generate a potential annualized dollar loss estimate for drought to the agricultural sector in Mecklenburg County, the following assumptions were made: (1) severe to extreme drought conditions will decrease countywide agricultural production by 20 percent[19]; and (2) Mecklenburg County experiences severe to extreme drought conditions 7.5 percent of the time.[20]  According to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, the annual net cash farm income in Mecklenburg County was $52,774,000 which includes all crops and livestock.[21]  Using this data in combination with the assumptions listed above, total annualized losses to severe and extreme drought conditions is estimated to be $792,000.

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

It is estimated that annualized losses to the drought hazard will decrease over time due to the continued trend of decreasing agricultural production within Mecklenburg County, much of which has to do with decreases in the number of farms and land available for farming.  According to a comparison between the 2007 and 2002 Census of Agriculture, the number of farms decreased by 21 percent and the total acres used for agricultural purposes declined by nearly 25 percent.  This number is consistent with other past studies which recorded a 24 percent decrease in cropland for Mecklenburg County between 1987 and 1997.  However, as noted above, while future agricultural losses may decrease other sectors of Mecklenburg County that are dependent on water supply will likely continue to experience future economic impacts during periods of severe to extreme drought conditions.

WILDFIRE

PRI Value: 2.6

Annualized Loss Estimate: $168,000

Similar to the flood hazard and as discussed in the Methodology earlier in this section, a more robust GIS-based risk assessment has been completed for the wildfire data due to the fact that wildfire hazard areas often have a recognizable geographic boundary and the availability of geo-spatial data that can be used to differentiate between various potential hazard risk zones.  The vulnerability assessment for the wildfire hazard includes the findings of the qualitative assessment conducted, a series of jurisdiction-level maps showing existing and future potential flood hazard areas (Figures 6.18 – 6.24), estimates of potential losses, social vulnerability, and future vulnerability and land use.  As documented in the Hazard Analysis section, Mecklenburg County experiences an average of 37 wildfire events per year.  While most of these events result in no property damages, there has been a reported total of $1.7 million in property damages since the year 2000.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the wildfire hazard scored a PRI value of 2.6 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.25 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.25: Qualitative Assessment for Wildfire

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Highly Likely

Minor

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Table 6.26 shows wildfire event data from 2000 to 2009 in Mecklenburg County (according to the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources) that contribute to an annualized loss estimate of approximately $168,000 for the wildfire hazard.

Table 6.26: Historical Wildfire Damages

YEAR OF EVENT

PROPERTY DAMAGES

(IN 2009 DOLLARS)

2000

$7,600

2001

$22,532

2002

$2,802

2003

$0

2004

$0

2005

$12,084

2006

$5,853

2007

$10,961

2008

$1,594,308

2009

$22,025

ANNUALIZED AVERAGE

$167,816

Sources: NCDFR; Statistical Risk Assessment Methodology


Figure 6.18: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, City of Charlotte

 





Figure 6.19: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Cornelius

 

 


Figure 6.20: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Davidson

 






Figure 6.21: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Huntersville

 

 


Figure 6.22: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Matthews

 

 



Figure 6.23: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Mint Hill

 

 


Figure 6.24: Potential Wildfire Hazard Areas, Town of Pineville

 

Following a detailed GIS analysis of the study area using best available GIS data including the delineation of areas of high and moderate wildfire potential according to NCDFR data, nearly 20,000 structures (greater than 600 square feet) were determined to be potentially at-risk to wildfire hazards amounting to a total net present worth of approximately $4.5 billion in exposure.  Table 6.27 provides a detailed listing of the number of structures estimated to be located within potentially high and moderate wildfire hazards areas along with their assessed building values.

Table 6.27: Overview of Potentially At-Risk Properties (Wildfire)

JURISDICTION

HIGH POTENTIAL WILDFIRE AREA

MODERATE POTENTIAL WILDFIRE AREA

NUMBER OF STRUCTURES

ASSESSED VALUE

NUMBER OF STRUCTURES

ASSESSED VALUE

Mecklenburg County

253

$73,430,100

3,706

$558,100,159

Charlotte

10

$1,445,700

6,080

$1,681,381,372

Cornelius

9

$1,514,000

1,606

$388,284,200

Davidson

0

$0

169

$139,481,600

Huntersville

74

$42,204,000

2,940

$697,584,889

Matthews

45

$6,261,100

1,756

$396,286,800

Mint Hill

199

$27,357,300

2,881

$470,129,316

Pineville

0

$0

81

$25,657,343

TOTAL

590

$152,212,200

19,219

$4,356,905,679

Sources: North Carolina Division of Forest Resources; Mecklenburg County; GIS Analysis

SOCIAL VULNERABILITY

Figure 6.25 shows potential vulnerable population density according to those census blocks that intersect with areas of high and moderate wildfire potential.  While this alone does not identify specific at-risk populations, it does create a base-level understanding of the general number of persons living in proximity to potential wildfire hazard areas.  According to the Census 2000 data records, the data suggests that nearly 8,000 people live within proximity to areas of high wildfire potential and approximately 138,000 people live within areas of moderate wildfire potential.

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

Figure 6.26 shows generalized zoning designations for unincorporated Mecklenburg County and its seven incorporated municipalities on one countywide map.  While this alone is not a firm indicator of future vulnerability as it relates to the wildfire hazard, land use and development trends, this composite map is presented here as a means of illustrating in a general way where future development may occur in relation to known potential wildfire hazard areas.  Delineations for both the high and moderate potential wildfire areas are illustrated in the figure.


Figure 6.25: Population Distribution and Wildfire Potential

 

 


Figure 6.26: Comparison of Zoning Designations with High Wildfire Potential

 

DAM/LEVEE FAILURE

PRI Value: 2.3

Annualized Loss Estimate: Negligible (less than $5,000)

As documented in the Hazard Analysis section, there are five major dams in MecklenburgCounty, defined as being 50 feet or more in height, or with a normal storage capacity of 5,000 acre-feet or more, or with a maximum storage capacity of 25,000 acre-feet or more.  There is no record of any damages, deaths or injuries associated with dam failure in MecklenburgCounty.

According to the qualitative assessment performed using the PRI tool, the dam/levee failure hazard scored a PRI value of 2.3 (from a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest risk level).  Table 6.28 summarizes the risk levels assigned to each PRI category.

Table 6.28: Qualitative Assessment for Dam/Levee Failure

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Unlikely

Critical

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam

ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL LOSSES

Generally speaking, failure or mis-operation of a dam classified as “high” hazard would result in the probability of at least one death and more than $200,000 in economic damages.  As documented in detail in the Hazard Analysis section, there are four major dams in Mecklenburg County classified as high hazard.  Table 6.29 shows the surface area, primary purpose and owner of the four major high hazard dams in the county.  According to North Carolina’s Dam Safety Office, there are a total of 69 high-hazard state-regulated dams across Mecklenburg County.  Due to the lack of any recorded historical events and relatively low probability of dam failure in Mecklenburg County, annualized loss for this hazard is considered to be negligible (less than $5,000).

Table 6.29: Inventory and Details of Major High Hazard Dams in Mecklenburg County

DAM NAME

SURFACE AREA
(ACRES)

PRIMARY PURPOSE

OWNER

Cowans Ford

32,510

Hydroelectric Power

Duke Power Co.

MountainIsland

3,235

Hydroelectric Power

Duke Power Co.

Hicks Crossroad Dike

32,510

Hydroelectric Power

Duke Power Co.

250 Mg Raw Water Reservoir

0

Water Supply

Char-Meck Utility

Source: National Inventory of Dams

FUTURE VULNERABILITY AND LAND USE

Future updates to this Plan will attempt to address dam failure vulnerability in greater detail, if warranted.  This may include a detailed analysis of properties located in dam failure inundation zones (data not currently available) or those determined to be located directly downstream of high hazard dams in order to better determine the number of people and value of properties located in potential inundation zones and thereby vulnerable to dam failure.  Once a baseline of this detail is established, it should become easier to then assess future vulnerability and land use.

CONCLUSIONS ON HAZARD RISK

The vulnerability assessment performed for MecklenburgCounty provides significant findings that allow the Mitigation Planning Committee to prioritize hazard risks and proposed hazard mitigation strategies and actions.  Prior to assigning conclusive risk levels for each hazard, the Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee Team reviewed the results of quantitative and qualitative assessments shown in the following tables.

 

Table 6.30 summarizes the degree of risk assigned to each category for all identified hazards in Mecklenburg County based on the application of the Priority Risk Index (PRI) tool fully introduced in “Methodologies Used.”  Assigned risk levels were based on historical and anecdotal data, as well as input from the Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam.  The results were then used in calculating PRI values and making conclusions for the qualitative assessment.

Table 6.30: Summary of Qualitative Assessment

HAZARD

CATEGORY/DEGREE OF RISK

PROBABILITY

IMPACT

SPATIAL EXTENT

WARNING TIME

DURATION

Flood

Highly Likely

Critical

Moderate

6 to 12 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

Likely

Critical

Large

More than 24 Hours

Less than 24 Hours

Severe Thunderstorms

Highly Likely

Limited

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Tornadoes

Likely

Critical

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Winter Storms

Likely

Critical

Large

More than 24 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Earthquakes

Possible

Critical

Moderate

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Landslides

Possible

Minor

Negligible

12 to 24 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Sinkholes

Possible

Limited

Negligible

6 to 12 Hours

Less than 6 Hours

Drought

Likely

Limited

Moderate

More than 24 Hours

More than 1 Week

Wildfire

Highly Likely

Minor

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Dam/Levee Failure

Unlikely

Critical

Small

Less than 6 Hours

Less than 1 Week

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam, 2010

Table 6.31 summarizes the annualized loss estimates that were generated for the applicable hazards based on the quantitative assessment and compares them with the PRI values determined for each hazard based on the qualitative assessment.  The results and comparisons of both assessments aided the Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee Team in determining the final conclusions on overall hazard risk for Mecklenburg County.

Table 6.31: Comparison of Annualized Loss Estimates and Priority Risk Index (PRI) Values

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS

HAZARD

ANNUALIZED LOSS ESTIMATES

HAZARD

PRI VALUE

Flood

$4,864,000

Flood

3.3

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

$3,761,0006,921,500

Winter Storms

3.0

Earthquakes

$2,424,0001,235,000

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

2.9

Winter Storms

$1,178,000

Severe Thunderstorms

2.7

Drought

$792,000

Tornadoes

2.7

Severe Thunderstorms

$286,000

Drought

2.6

Tornadoes

$170,000

Earthquakes

2.6

Wildfire

$168,000

Wildfire

2.6

Dam/Levee Failure

Negligible

Dam/Levee Failure

2.3

Sinkholes

Negligible

Sinkholes

1.8

Landslides

Negligible

Landslides

1.4

Source: Mecklenburg County Mitigation Planning Committee, 2010

The conclusions drawn from the qualitative and quantitative assessments, combined with final determinations from the Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam, were fitted into three categories for a final summary of hazard risk for Mecklenburg County based on High, Moderate or Low designations (Table 6.32).  It should be noted that although some hazards are classified as posing Low risk, their occurrence of varying or unprecedented magnitudes is still possible and will continue to be reevaluated during future updates of this Plan.

Table 6.32: Conclusions on Hazard Risk for Mecklenburg County

HIGH RISK

Flood

Winter Storms

Hurricanes and Tropical Storms

Severe Thunderstorms

Tornadoes

MODERATE RISK

Drought

Earthquakes

Wildfire

LOW RISK

Dam/Levee Failure

Sinkholes

Landslides

Source: Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning CommitteeTeam, 2010


[1] As explained in previous sections and as fully documented in Section 2: Planning Process, the Mecklenburg County Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee Team evaluated all primary natural hazards likely to impact the United States and determined which of those hazards would be addressed in the Hazard Identification, Hazard Analysis and Vulnerability Assessment sections.  For example, the tsunami and volcano hazards were briefly considered (as documented in Table 2.2), but were ruled out as valid hazards for inclusion in this risk assessment for reasons documented in Table 2.2.

[2] For the 20105 plan update process, the most current version of HAZUS-MH (MR-4)Hazus 2.2  was used which included an updated general building stock inventory, among other features.

[3] By annualizing estimated losses, the historic patterns of frequent smaller events are coupled with infrequent but larger events to provide a balanced presentation of the overall, long-term risk.

[4] The Hazard Mitigation Planning Committee Team based upon any unique concerns for the planning area may also adjust the PRI weighting scheme.

[5] Estimated maximum severity levels (i.e., magnitude or extent) were classified according to scientific scales such as the Saffir-Simpson Scale for hurricanes, Palmer Drought Severity Index for drought, Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale for earthquakes and Enhanced Fujita Scale for tornadoes (more thoroughly described in Section 4: Hazard Identification).  For hazards with no scientific scale applied, only concise qualitative descriptions of severity are provided based on the results of the hazard analysis as summarized in Section 5.

[6] HAZUSMHHazusMHVersion MR-42.2 uses Census 2000 2010 and Dunn and Bradstreet (2006) data for its default inventories.  Any values unavailable in the current version of the HAZUSMHHazusMHsoftware are not reflected.

[7] “Other” includes any buildings used for agriculture, government, religious or education purposes.

[8] The analysis of at-risk critical facilities was limited to only the flood and wildfire hazards for which specific, geographically-defined hazards areas have been established.  While landslide hazards may indeed be defined spatially (and USGS maps of general landslide susceptibility are provided in Section 5: Hazard Analysis), no detailed landslide hazard studies have been completed for Mecklenburg County.

[9] The 51 critical facilities listed within areas of moderate wildfire potential are not listed herein as it’s been determined more site-specific assessment should be done in advance of classifying the facilities as potentially at risk to wildfire.

[10] While these figures are reported according to FEMA’s NFIP policy and claim statistics data, it was noted by Mecklenburg County Storm Water Services that many of the policies listed for the County are for properties that are actually located within the incorporated municipalities (estimated up to 500 policies may be listed inaccurately).

[11] Under the NFIP, FEMA defines a repetitive loss property as “any NFIP-insured property that, since 1978 and regardless of any change(s) of ownership during that period, has experienced: a) four or more paid flood losses; or b) two paid flood losses within a 10-year period that equal or exceed the current value of the insured property; or c) three or more paid losses that equal or exceed the current value of the insured property.“. “

[12] “Pre-FIRM” indicates that the structure was built prior Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and to the local enforcement of NFIP standards and is therefore considered to be at potentially greater risk from the flood hazard.

[13] Direct economic loss figures include building, content and inventory loss along with business interruption losses (income, relocation, rental income, wages, etc.).

[14] All jurisdictions in Mecklenburg County have adopted and enforce regulatory standards that exceed NFIP minimums.  For more information on these standards, please see Section 7: Capability Assessment.

[15] Refer to the Hazard Analysis section of this risk assessment for detailed historical information.

[16] According to FEMA’s HAZUS Hazus Web site, “a Level 1 analysis yields a rough estimate based on the nationwide database and is a great way to begin the risk assessment process and prioritize high-risk communities.”

[17] National Mitigation Strategy: Partnerships for Building Safer Communities.  FEMA, 1995.

[18] According to economic loss estimates caused by drought conditions in 2002, agriculture losses made up 95% of total recorded losses.

[19] The figure of 20 percent is based on estimates and anecdotal data provided in those publications reviewed as part of this study, including documents from the National Drought Mitigation Center and other statewide economic impact studies for past droughts.

[20] The figure of 7.5 percent is based on the long-term average percent of time in severe and extreme drought conditions according to the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), as discussed in Section 5: Hazard Analysis.

[21] Further breakdowns of agricultural statistics for Mecklenburg County are not made available through the 2007 Census of Agriculture (such data is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual farms).


 [SM1]Do you have the new numbers?

 [SM2]We didn’t run an annualized report, just keep the same?

 [SM3]Some are 2009 some are 2014?

 [SM4]Need to update

 

 

Probably out of the actual NC data?  We have building and parcel data.

I can get the counts but not the values – persay

 

 [SM5]Do we want to use the Building shapefile for number of structures and parcel file for assessed value? Or did you have one that had buildings and values?

 [SM6]Need to update based on Mike’s Preference

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